Lebanon Crop Management Video

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24 April 2012

Corn Herbicide Injury Diagnostics.

Each spring many Agronomists are challenged to diagnose varying residual  maladies that may or may not affect crops.  There are distinctive diagnostics that when observed can tell the story of whether a  herbicide has caused damage to the crop. With the recent 2-3 inch of rain and the fact that some growers applied residuals just ahead of this rain we could see some injury to newly emerged plants.  Here is a table of some common corn herbicides and what to look for if injury is present.

http://extension.psu.edu/agronomy-guide/pm/tables/table-2-2-4

I might also add that it is one thing to see the injury but there are products that do tend to harm our crops more than others.  Dr. Curran rates products from Fair to Excellent pertaining to crop safety. Chances are in adverse conditions some of the products listed as Fair may have a potential to injure your crop.  This link if you follow it scroll to the second page to the right hand column for crop safety.
http://extension.psu.edu/agronomy-guide/pm/tables/table2-2-8.pdf

Couple these together and a story could then be told.  If you require further restrictions  and use recommendations follow this link and read and follow the application restrictions.
http://extension.psu.edu/agronomy-guide/pm/tables/table2-2-10.pdf

Hard Seed In Alfalfa

Dan Undersander, Ken Albrecht, Nick Degenhart, Jim Moutrey, Marc McCaslin
Questions arise about hard seed in alfalfa are becoming more important with increased seed production in the northwestern United States where seed tends to have higher levels of hard seed.  To answer questions about hard seed, studies were initiated at three sites (Arlington, WI, West Salem, WI and Napier, IA) in 1992 and 1993 to gain information on the effect of hard seed on speed of germination and on yield during seeding year.  Each year four varieties with three levels of hard seed were planted at the three sites.  The average hard seed for each of the three levels is shown in table 1.  It is interesting to note that the percentage of hard seed declined from fall to spring.  The decline of hard seed varied with lot but generally showed greatest declines were initial hard seed levels were highest.


Table 1.  Change in Hard Seed Percentage over Winter
Hard Seed Level
Fall Germination Test
Spring Germination Test

Percent Hard Seed
Low
10.5
8.4
Medium
25.4
15.8
High
43.9
30.6


In study one at each site 100 seeds were planted in a ring in the ground and germinated alfalfa seedlings were counted monthly and then removed.  Table 2 shows the germination of alfalfa seedlings over time.  Data from the three sites were averaged together because there was no difference among the sites.  Most of the seed germinated within the first month after seeding with very little germination occurring in later months, regardless of hard seed level.  This also tells us that hard seed will not fill in a thin stand because very few seeds germinate after the first month and essentially none after 60 days.


Table 2.  Alfalfa Emergence over time with varying levels of hard seed

30 day1s
60 days
90 days
120 days
Hard Seed
Scarified
Number Emerged2
High
No
67
11
4
0
High
Yes
75
7
1
0
Medium
No
69
10
2
0
Medium
Yes
73
7
1
0
Low
No
74
9
2
0
Low
Yes
80
6
1
0
1 Days after planting.
2 Each ring started with 100 seeds.

The most important question is: did hard seed levels affect alfalfa yield? In a second study small plots were seeded at 12 lbs seed/a regardless of the level of hard seed.  As shown in table 3 below, hard seed had no effect on yield in either the seeding year of the year after.


Table 3.  Effect of Hard Seed on Alfalfa Yields.

1992 Seeding
1993 Seeding
Hard Seed Level
1992 Harvest
1993 Harvest
1993 Harvest

tons dry matter/acre
High
1.85
4.72
2.04
Medium
1.85
4.74
2.03
Low
1.88
4.78
2.05


In summary, up to 40% hard seed had no effect on germination or yield of alfalfa.  Further, few seeds germinated after 30 days after seeding and none contributed to yield.

19 April 2012

Alfalfa Weevil Stage

Del Voight _ Penn State Extension

I am finding some smaller instar larvae and also some larger ones. Here is a link to Pa Pipe weevil forecast. It is showing 4 instar in southern areas and 3rd in the north.  YOU will need to scroll down to the weevil tab for the analysis.

http://pa-pipe.zedxinc.com/cgi-bin/index.cgi

Wheat Disease and Head Scab

There seems to be reports of Powdery Mildew on wheat that is susceptible all the resistance varieties seem to have little to no levels of Powdery Mildew. I have yet to view a field that I would spray. Now we need to time and watch the scab forecast. Here it is keep checking it to manage scab risk.

http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/riskTool_2012.html

Also Prosaro - 8.2 ounce/acre or Caramba at 9 ounces/acre would be the two products of choice as heads emerge.

12 April 2012

Rye heads showing

South Lebanon heads are popping.  Time to chop





Ryelage Harvest

Posted: April 19, 2011
Rye cover crops are one of the fastest growing cover crops in the spring. To ensure high quality ryelage harvest, producers must have harvest equipment ready to go. Quality of ryelage rapidly decreases with maturity and one day in harvest delay can make the difference between high quality and average to poor quality forage. If producers rely on custom harvesters, these individuals need to be contacted now to plan approximate harvest schedules.
Timing of ryelage harvest is critical to ensuring high quality forages. Waiting until head emergence is too late as the rapid maturing of the plants results in high fiber, lower quality forages. Monitoring stands for the emergence of the flag leaf is important. Shortly after flag leaf emergence the flower head will emerge. Timing of harvest prior to head emergence is the goal. Producers can carefully dissect tillers or feel for the flower head to determine stage of growth.
High amounts of forage dry matter from rye stands present a challenge for rapid dry down. The faster the forage is wilted to optimum fermentation dry matter levels the higher the levels of plant sugars remaining in the plant which results in better fermentation and higher quality forage. By mowing and not conditioning the rye and then putting the forage in as wide a swath as possible producers can take advantage of sunlight to increase rates of dry down. Conditioning is important for drying forages to hay moisture levels but does not benefit haylage storage practices.
Many successful ryelage producers also ted their rye to speed dry down. Most will ted as soon after mowing as the surface of the swath is dry. This is usually followed by a second tedding when the tops of the forage is dry and finally a rake is used when dry matters are close to harvest targets (35 – 38%) to prepare the field for chopping.
Another successful practice is to include the use of inoculants to speed the fermentation process in the ryelage storage structure. Be sure to talk to your supplier to select the proper inoculants for a ryelage crop. Be certain to check inoculant rates and the manufacturer date to ensure high quality products. When filling the inoculant tank do not use chlorinated water. Chlorine in public water systems can negatively affect inoculants survivability. Another factor that has been shown to affect inoculant survival is temperature of the water on the choppers. When tanks are located near engines and/or exposed to sunlight, high water temperatures can reduce viability of the bacteria. Rapid harvest, heavy packing and covering of the pile are additional keys to ensuring high quality forages in bunker silos.
By Paul Craig, Senior Extension Educator, Dauphin County

09 April 2012

USBTRAINING OPPORTUNITY



Del Voight

----- Forwarded message -----
From: "Phil Bogdan" <pbogdan@scisoc.org>
To: "Delbert Gallett Voight" <dgv1@psu.edu>
Subject:
Date: Tue, Apr 3, 2012 4:16 pm



Dear Del:

The United Soybean Board, as part of a tech transfer initiative, has purchased
another 500 subscriptions to the Plant Management Network's suite of resources.


These free subscriptions are meant for soybean growers and the consultants who
work for them.  

Please copy, paste, tweak (if desired), and forward the following information
(below my signature) to your growers and consultants through email, blog, website,
newsletter, or any other communications that you see fit. There are two versions.
 The first is in a format suited for emails and listservs.  The second is a format
is more suited for articles or postings. These subscriptions are given away on
a first-come, first-serve basis, so please forward on the information as soon
as you can…

Thank You and Kind Regards,
Phil Bogdan

[Format 1]

Subject line:
Access a Wealth of Crop Management Info Courtesy of the Soybean Checkoff (First
Come, First Serve)

Dear ____:

As part of its tech transfer efforts, the United Soybean Board purchased 500
one-year subscriptions to the Plant Management Network (PMN) for soybean growers
and the consultants who work for them.  These subscriptions are available on
a first-come, first-serve basis, and they are intended for individuals who did
not subscribe during USB's 500-subscription promotion last fall. 

This subscription includes access to PMN's entire collection of "Focus on Soybeans"
webcasts.  More than 50 soybean webcasts have been produced to date, and they
feature actionable crop management information from experts who work in the field.
 PMN subscriptions also include access to nearly 8,000 fungicide, nematicide,
insecticide, and biological control trials; more than 1,000 applied crop management
research articles; nearly 3,000 crop management news articles; about 5,000 images;
tens of thousands of extension documents, and other information useful for growers
and consultants.  All this information is located through in one central website
and searchable by keyword.
       
You can sign up for a free one-year subscription to all the Plant Management
Network's content through the signup form at the following short link: http://bit.ly/GFDCzj.
  

Just enter the required contact information, scroll down toward the bottom of
the page, enter your preferred username and password, and click "submit".  Make
sure to record your username and password on paper for safekeeping.

Once you subscribe, you'll get article alerts once a month in the form of PMN's
Update newsletter.  Click through to whatever content you like.  If it's subscriber-only
content, you'll be prompted to fill in your username and password.

Here's a listing of PMN's soybean-inclusive resources, all of which can be accessed
through Focus on Soybean…
http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/subscriptions/details/soybean.asp

There are only 500 subscriptions, and they went quick the last time this was
done.  So please fill out the signup form as soon as possible!

[Format 2]

Soybean Growers and Consultants: Get Free Access to a Wealth of Crop Management
Information Courtesy of the Soybean Checkoff
Only 500 subscriptions available on a first come, first serve basis

As part of its tech transfer efforts, the United Soybean Board purchased 500
one-year subscriptions to the Plant Management Network (PMN) for soybean growers
and the consultants who work for them.  These subscriptions are available on
a first-come, first-serve basis and are intended for first-time subscribers.
 

This subscription includes access to PMN's entire collection of "Focus on Soybeans"
webcasts.  More than 50 soybean webcasts have been produced to date, and they
feature actionable crop management information from experts who work in the field.
 PMN subscriptions also include access to nearly 8,000 fungicide, nematicide,
insecticide, and biological control trials; more than 1,000 applied crop management
research articles; nearly 3,000 crop management news articles; about 5,000 images;
tens of thousands of extension documents, and other information useful for growers
and consultants.  All of this is located through in one central website and searchable
by keyword.
       
You can sign up for a free one-year subscription to all the Plant Management
Network's content through the signup form at the following short link: http://bit.ly/GFDCzj.
  Those who fill out the form will be allowed access to the site through a username
and password of their choosing.

Once subscribed, users will receive article alerts once a month in the form of
PMN's Update newsletter. Subscriber-only content can be accessed through the
username and password.

Only 500 subscriptions are available, so readers are encouraged to sign up for
their free username and password as soon as possible.  View PMN's entire collection
of soybean-inclusive resources at
http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/subscriptions/details/soybean.asp.



02 April 2012

Scouting Pests 2012


Del Voight – Penn State Extension

Scouting is a process that requires that the crop producer physically view fields to determine the need for activity.  Proper timing of the scouting activity is critical to controlling a pest before harm is done to the crop.  For treatment options, rates per acre, harvest restrictions and other information refer to the Agronomy Guide for specifics.






Here are some thoughts for key spring pests to consider.

Alfalfa

The  alfalfa I viewed in the Lebanon Area had 6-8 inches of growth as of last Friday.  This season is advanced due to the heat accumulation being rapid this spring.  In my office we have 230 heat units that apply to weevils so in the next few days they will enter a key time to assessing populations in your fields.  Consult the PAPIPE system for your local information on weevil activity.  I have been checking fields for the last two weeks and noted damage on all fields.  Last week I would estimate about 15% damage far below economic thresholds weevils are small mostly 1 and 2nd instars.  The larve are still small but will feed rapidly particularly if the weather warms.  Scout fields that have a southern exposure.  One can use a can or a sweep net to collect weevils and assess populations  A factsheet on weevil threshold and product selection can be obtained through the CMEG website.  http://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/alfalfa-weevil



Timothy

Timothy mites are active right now and at the time of your receiving this letter you should have been out looking at the Timothy stands and observing if treatment is necessary.  I have heard numerous reports of large populations to our south so it is important to get out and assess timothy stands now.  If you see a droughty appearance most likely the mite is causing that appearance. I have found a 30-40 power hand lens to be enough to see the mites moving on the surface of the leaf.  We were had plenty of time to react to them last year by spraying for this pest but this year they are multiplying much quicker so it is more critical this season than last.  Time treatments to three weeks after green up(this is about now in my area).  This should occur about the middle of April in normal years this year I think we are a week or two before that timing.  Again a factsheet is available on what to look for and how to properly control the pest on the CMEG website.  http://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/cereal-rust-mite





Small Grains

Diseases  can severely impact small grain yields.  I have identified the growth of  Septoria in fields in Lebanon County.  As the small grains move into GS 6 and 7  it is imperitive that growers determine the presence and movement of disease up the plants leaf system from ground to top to determine the need to spray.  Refer the the Agronomy Guide for specifics on how to properly determine the need to treat for these diseases.  I have heard growers including a fungicide with a nitrogen application.  We did a couple of year sof work applying extremely early and did not see enough yield benefit to justify spraying.  I would discourage this treatment and rather have them look for the presence of aphids, cereal leaf beetles and other insect pests .  It appears from my scouting that we have more of a presence of insects than diseases as of today.  In the last two years Dr. Collins has shown through the On Farm Network that  the GS 8-9 treatments did have  a response depending on the level of disease. This again points to one scouting for the presence of the disease before applying a pest management tactic.



Corn and Soybeans

While we have not yet begun the trapping program for cutworms I would expect that we will see the peak egg laying time moved up from previous years.  I typically see cutworms about the second week of  April but given the weather conditions this spring we could see them earlier.  With the amount of egg laying sites that are attractive to both cutworms and armyworms I would not be surprized if we see these pests at economic levels if the weather continues warm and dry.  Again the PAPIPE system is a great site to monitor these pests and determine the best time to scout for them.  http://extension.psu.edu/pa-pipe