Lebanon Crop Management Video

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29 April 2011

Changes over two years.



 

 
 

 

January 2009

TODAY

% chg

Source

Avg.. Retail price/gallon gas in U.S.

$1.83

$3.104

69.6%

1

Crude oil, European Brent (barrel)

$43.48

$99.02

127.7%

2

Crude oil, West TX Inter. (barrel)

$38.74

$91.38

135.9%

2

Gold: London (per troy oz.)

$853.25

$1,369.50

60.5%

2

Corn, No.2 yellow, Central IL

$3.56

$6.33

78.1%

2

Soybeans, No. 1 yellow, IL

$9.66

$13.75

42.3%

2

Sugar, cane, raw, world, lb. Fob

$13.37

$35.39

164.7%

2

Unemployment rate, non-farm, overall

7.6%

9.4%

23.7%

3

Unemployment rate, blacks

12.6%

15.8%

25.4%

3

Number of unemployed

11,616,000

14,485,000

24.7%

3

Number of fed. Employees, ex. Military (curr = 12/10 prelim)

2,779,000

2,840,000

2.2%

3

Real median household income (2008 v 2009)

$50,112

$49,777

-0.7%

4

Number of food stamp recipients (curr = 10/10)

31,983,716

43,200,878

35.1%

5

Number of unemployment benefit recipients (curr = 12/10)

7,526,598

9,193,838

22.2%

6

Number of long-term unemployed

2,600,000

6,400,000

146.2%

3

Poverty rate, individuals (2008 v 2009)

13.2%

14.3%

8.3%

4

People in poverty in U.S. (2008 v 2009)

39,800,000

43,600,000

9.5%

4

U.S.. Rank in Economic Freedom World Rankings

5

9

n/a

10

Present Situation Index (curr = 12/10)

29.9

23.5

-21.4%

11

Failed banks (curr = 2010 + 2011 to date)

140

164

17.1%

12

U.S.. Dollar versus Japanese yen exchange rate

89.76

82.03

-8.6%

2

U.S.. Money supply, M1, in billions (curr = 12/10 prelim)

1,575.1

1,865.7

18.4%

13

U.S.. Money supply, M2, in billions (curr = 12/10 prelim)

8,310.9

8,852.3

6.5%

13

National debt, in trillions

$10..627

$14..052

32.2%

14


Just take this last item:  In the last two years we have accumulated national debt at a rate more than 27 times as fast as during the rest of our entire nation's history..  Over 27 times as fast.  Metaphorically speaking, if you are driving in the right lane doing 65 MPH and a car rockets past you in the left lane. 27 times faster, it would be doing  1,755 MPH!
Sources:
(1) U.S. Energy Information Administration; (2) Wall Street Journal; (3) Bureau of Labor Statistics; (4) Census Bureau; (5) USDA; (6) U.S. Dept. Of Labor; (7) FHFA; (8) Standard & Poor's/Case-Shiller; (9) RealtyTrac; (10) Heritage Foundation and WSJ; (11) The Conference Board; (12) FDIC; (13) Federal Reserve; (14) U.S. Treasury/
 
 

 

 


 
 
 

 

 

 

28 April 2011

Spring Planting Delays when to begin making decisions

Del Voight - Senior Extension Agent - Penn State Extension

28, April 2011
We are experiencing probably the most difficult spring in years. As we move into May growers, that still have two weeks of manure spreading and alfalfa to harvest,  might find themselves planting much later than the  ideal planting dates for the area. Research suggests corn will begin decrease in yield after May 10 somewhere between 2-2.5 bu/day as the planting window narrows there will be some economic considerations that may be required to make rational decisions. These charts from the Agronomy Guide might come in handy.

Table 1.4-8. Estimated grain yields for various planting dates and population rates. Figures shown are most applicable to fields with less than 125 bushels per acre

Table 1.4-8. Estimated grain yields for various planting dates and population rates. Figures shown are most applicable to fields with less than 125 bushels per acre.
Planting datePlants/A at harvest
12,00014,00016,00018,00020,00022,50025,000
Optimum yield (percent)
April 2072788387909395
April 2575818690939698
May 1778388929598100
May 6788388929598100
May 1177838892959899
May 1675818690939698
May 2173788387919495
May 2669758084879092
May 3164707579828587
June 559646973778081
June 1052586367707375

Table 1.4-8B. Estimated grain yields for various planting dates and population rates

Table 1.4-8B. Estimated grain yields for various planting dates and population rates. Figures shown are most applicable to corn fields with yields greater than 175 bushels per acre.
Planting datePlants/A at harvest
10,00015,00020,00025,00030,00035,50040,000
Optimum yield (percent)
Source: University of Illinois
April 154687888959999
April 105770819197100100
April 20587181919710099
April 3058708089959796
May 955687786919391
May 1950637280858684
May 2944566573777875
June 835475663676764
This spread sheet will allow one to compare corn to soybean incomes. farmdocdaily: Planting Delays and Switching to Soybeans: A New FAST Spreadsheet

With Corn which is heat dependent growing degree days become important.  This chart details the latest planting dates based on a hybrid requiring 2600 heat units to develop. As the season progresses short season hybrids may need to be reviewed and used as necessary.

Soybeans do not lose yield at such a dramatic rate as corn however there are issues with switching. First off if any residual herbicides have been used the carryover can be an issue. Particularly for atrazine based products. ALS materials are another concern, however, there are STS varieties of soybeans that could work in that scenario.
In summary, it is too early to determine the best course of action as of today. It appears that in our area mid may returns to corn mimic soybeans however by the first week of June returns favor soybeans. More updates as this spring unfolds will be available through Extension research.

25 April 2011

Lebanon Area Crop Considerations

Corn
  • Stage - Still in the bag only a few acres in.  At least 10 days for some folks to get manure spread.  At this point the goal is get the corn in the ground then worry about the weeds and insects.
  • Pests cutworms around. Got some calls on vegetable crops. I would expect slugs and numerous other pests to be waiting to be fed a nice crop of corn.  Again get the corn seeded and protected then worry about weeds. I see a tremendous bottle neck coming in another week with alfalfa ryelage and manure spreading with time management. Start with what makes the most money. High quality alfalfa and corn seeding before the 10th of May.  Focus on that.
  • Other -
  • Stage
    • Fields too wet to do anything at this point.  Once the field can be driven on I would plan to get it planted immediately then worry about weed control later.

  • Pest
·        Weed  - Burndown failures are evident where Gramozone is being used to kill rye, barley and wheat. The issue here is that  this product is contact therefore it needs complete coverage to be effective.  10 gpa application rates hinder the product as does waiting until the crop is too tall to cover the entire plant.  Resprays are occuring as a result.
·      Disease

·      Insect

·        Other –.   


Stage   10 inches of regrowth in many fields far behind last years growth.  There are 475 heat units that apply to alfalfa historic accumulations of 700 heat units so we behind by about two weeks.   Harvest would be ideal at 700 heat units so we need some heat soon to push this further.
Spring Seedings
·        Established Stands – 10 inches
·        Spring Seedings
o   2 inches

Pest
·        Weed
o   Add
·        Disease
·        Insect 

o   Weevils are  active I did see some sign in area fields nothing too prolific at this point.  .

When should scouting begin?

Larvae begin hatching at approximately 200 degree days in fields south of I-80, and 250 degree days in fields north of this highway. The Iowa map shows the accumulated degree days across the nine crop reporting districts. Scouting can begin after the appropriate number of degree days has accumulated in your area.

Where should you start scouting?

Begin on south-facing hillsides. Larvae will hatch here first because these areas warm up quicker than northern hillsides.

How do you scout for alfalfa weevil larvae?

Save some time by using a sweep net to quickly and easily determine if larvae have hatched in your field. If larvae are found in the net, then collect 30 stems and look for larvae in the upper leaves. When collecting stems, do not break them too hard or you will knock off larvae still on the plant. The best way to collect the most larvae is to grab the tip of the plant with one hand and break the base of the stem with the other hand, or cut it with a knife. Place stems inside a white, 5-gallon bucket and beat them against the side. Large larvae will dislodge and can be counted easily, but newly developing leaves must be pulled apart to find very small, newly hatched larvae hidden in the plant tip.

What do alfalfa weevil larvae look like?

They have a very dark head, almost black, and are pale green with a white stripe down the back. They are about 1é16 of an inch in length when they hatch and may be light yellow. After feeding for several days, they turn green. They are 5é16 inch in length when full grown.

Alfalfa weevil are small; less than 5/16-inch long.



Alfalfa weevil larvae.

Are there any other insects that look like alfalfa weevil larvae?

Yes. Larvae of the clover leaf weevil look very similar, but are larger, have a light brown head, and often have the white stripe edged with pink. Clover leaf weevil larvae usually hide around the base of the plant during the day and feed mostly in lower leaves at night. They rarely cause economic yield losses and should not be counted as part of the alfalfa weevil sample.

Clover leaf weevil larva.

When should alfalfa weevils be controlled?

If two or more larvae are found per stem, and 40 percent of the stems show any leaf feeding, the best option is to cut the hay within 5 days, if possible. This method of cultural control avoids the use of insecticides. If the crop is not mature enough to cut, then chemical control may be an option, depending on the economic thresholds.

What are the economic thresholds for chemical control?

New economic thresholds have been developed by University of Nebraska entomologists. These thresholds are for alfalfa at the early bud stage, when third- and fourth-stage larvae do 90 percent of the damage. To use the economic threshold chart, first determine the control costs in dollars per acre, then estimate the forage value in dollars per ton. Where these two values intersect (Table 1) is the average number of alfalfa weevil larvae per stem needed to justify chemical control. For example, if control cost is $10 per acre and forage value is $75 dollars per ton, then an average of 3.4 larvae per stem would be needed to justify chemical management (Table 1).

Alfalfa weevil damage in unsprayed strips.

What if the weevil count is below the economic threshold?

Resample the field in 3 to 5 days. Chemical management may be needed then, or possibly the crop may have reached a stage where it can be cut.

What chemicals are labeled for alfalfa weevils?

Several chemicals that can be used for alfalfa weevil control are shown in Table 2. Read and follow all label directions before using any insecticide.
Table 1. Economic thresholds for alfalfa weevil larvae in early bud stage alfalfa (average number of larvae per stem).


Forage value ($ per ton)
Control cost

($ per acre)
45
55
65
75
85
95
105
115
7
4.0
3.3
2.8
2.4
2.2
1.9
1.8
1.6
8
4.6
3.6
3.2
2.7
2.4
2.2
2.0
1.8
9
5.2
4.2
3.6
3.1
2.7
2.5
2.2
2.0
10
5.8
4.7
4.0
3.4
3.0
2.7
2.5
2.2
11
6.3
5.2
4.4
3.8
3.4
3.0
2.7
2.5
12
6.9
5.6
4.8
4.2
3.7
3.3
3.0
2.7
13
7.4
6.1
5.2
4.5
3.9
3.5
3.2
2.9

Table 2. Insecticides labeled for alfalfa weevil.

Insecticide
Rate per acre

at low and high rates
Harvest

interval

(days)
Ambush 2E
6.4-12.8 ounces
0-14
Baythroid 2E
1.6-2.8 ounces
7
Furadan 4F
0.5-2 pints
7-28
Lannate LV
3 pints
0
Lorsban 4E
1-2 pints
14-21
Penncap-M
2-3 pints
15
Pounce 3.2EC
4-8 ounces
0-14
Sevin XLR+
3 pints
7
Warrior 1T
2.56-3.84 ounces
7

o  
·        Other
o   Add

  • Stage  Growing rapidly
    • Established –  10 inch regrowth
    • New Seedings
      • 3 inches in many cases if they were able to get in to seed this spring at all.
  • Pest
·        Weed
o   Perennials are at full speed in growth. Application selection of Cimarron, Forefront, Milestone, Crossbow, 2,4-D, Stinger, Overdrive, or combinations should be made on a case by case basis with reseeding/overseeding and species in mind.   
·        Disease
o   None to report
·        Insect –  Still numerous grubs found in area fields. In hay crop it is not as big of an issue as pasture and heavily manure fields.
·        Other



Small Grains
  • Stage
    • Stage 6 or 7 in most areas with most early planted approaching stage 6.
  • Pest
o   Disease – Now is the time to get out and begin looking for disease movement. With rains septoria will begin infection.  Be sure to check for the presence on the lower leaves and not it as the season progresses then see how much it moves toward the flag leaf it it gets up to within three leaves of the flag a fungicide may prove to be economical and prevent spread to the flag leaf.
o   Insect
·        Reports of Cereal Leaf beetle showing up in areas to the south.      
o   Other
  • Stage Green Up 10inches of new growth.
    • Established – Wait until the grass has about knee high growth before grazing.  If need be flash graze quickly to keep ahead of the grass. 
    • New Seedings – 3 inches of growth
  • Pest
·        Weed
o     Again as in the hay crop selection is critical.  Forefront, Cimarron, Overdrive, Crossbow and Milestone do not have a grazing restriction for most species in the region.
·        Disease
o   Add
·        Insect
o     Got some more grub calls from Growmark. Seems to be some populations around.  I would not get excited since rains tend to decrease the effect of the grubs.