10 April 2014

manure track affect on rye.Video: 2014/04/09

3000 gal per acr appication impct o wheel traffick on rye.  Field was not frozen when applied. It appears the tires layed the rye over and then the coating sealed over the tracks and smothered the rye.

08 April 2014

Plant Tissue Testing Winter Wheat to determine fertility needs this spring

Del Voight- Penn State Extension

Several growers are considering more high yield management for the wheat crop. A few growers last season enjoyed 100 bu/acre plus while managing for high yield wheat crops.  The first step is to gain an accurate soil test. The second step is to collect a sample in the spring for plant analysis. The Ag Analytical Lab provides the testing for the results.  Here are the specifics to gather the samples.
Once the plant fully greens up when the weather breaks gather the samples and send them off. This will allow for adequate time to determine a nutrient strategy before peak growth at GS5 Wheat Growth Stage Diagram.

Small grains
Seedling stage (less than 12”...All the above ground 50-100 plants)

Prior to heading The 4 uppermost leaves. 40-50
Sampling after heading not recommended
Once you get the results refer to this site for more specific information on the what is acceptable levels in the plant.
Key nutrient numbers for wheat

Cereal Rust Mite, Abacarus hystrix(Nalepa): A pest on Timothy

The presence of this mite as a significant factor of timothy losses has been reported in Lancaster, Lebanon, Dauphin and York counties over the past 2 years.  Some yield loss estimates range from 30-70% loss of yield.  This problem, however, has most likely been present for a longer period of time but gone unnoticed.  In Maryland, problems have been seen for the last 10 years. When the problem first occurred in during the early 1990's in Maryland, the mites only infested the variety Climax, but high populations of the mite have recently been encountered on other varieties.  In 1999, the mite was officially identified as the cereal rust mite, A.  hystrix, by Dr. Ronald Ochoah, a USDA-ARS mite specialist.  This is the first record of this species in Pennsylvania.  A.  hystrix has been infesting timothy for some time, but due to its small size, growers have attributed its subtle injury symptoms to agronomic reasons.  Based on grower contacts and surveys by extension personnel in Maryland, Delaware, and Pennsylvania, the range of cereal rust mite infestations is expanding and virtually every acre of timothy grown in central and western Maryland and southeastern Pennsylvania is infested to some degree.
             Timothy hay is a very profitable cash crop produced on an estimated170,000 acres in Pennsylvania.  It is usually marketed to the horse industry at premium prices ranging from $75 to $180 per ton. Gross revenues for this crop range from $216 to $315 per acre.  The prices of good quality timothy hay can exceed that of alfalfa.  Production of timothy in Pennsylvania is currently not high enough to satisfy the horse industry; so considerable quantities of timothy are imported into the state to meet the demand.  Thus, reductions in the yield and quality of timothy grown in Pennsylvania result directly in economic losses  to growers and indirectly to horse owners who have to pay higher prices for imported hay.

Adult rust mites are very small (<1mm). They are spindle-shaped, with four legs and may be white, yellow or orange. You will need a hand lens to
see them. To check for eriophyid mites, look for off-color foliage, leaf or bud abnormalities. Use a 10X or 20X hand lens. Large mite populations often produce many elongate, white shed skins. The mites feed on bulliform cells at the base of grooves on the adaxial leaf surface.  Eggs are deposited in the grooves, and both eggs and immatures become distributed higher in the canopy as leaves unfold.  Adult mites move downward in the plant crown, where they prefer to feed on the youngest tissues of the plant.  The mite undergoes numerous generations per year (a generation time of 16-18 days at 20o C) and there is no known diapause stage.  Although development is reduced, mite stages are active during the winter in the crowns of its host plants.
            The feeding of A. hystrix causes direct injury to timothy, which results in retarded growth, stunting, and discoloration.  No other pest species or agronomic factor is more important as a constraint in timothy production than the cereal rust mite.  The feeding of A. hystrix causes direct injury to timothy, which results in retarded growth, stunting, and discoloration. Severe mite infestations have two negative impacts on local growers.  Feeding injury causes substantial yield losses, as much as 50%, and also reduces hay quality by the brown discoloration.  Horse producers are reluctant to buy hay that is not the normal color of quality timothy.  As a side note, A. hystrix is also known to vector ryegrass mosaic virus (RMV), a serious disease of temperate grasslands, and may be a vector of agronpyron mosaic virus (AMV), a minor disease of wheat and other grasses.  These diseases cause substantial losses to pasture production in other parts of the world, especially in Europe.  However, the presence of RMV and AMV in the USA has not been detected.  The symptoms of feeding injury on timothy resemble the typical symptoms of a viral infection; however, disease infections have never been confirmed by ELISA determinations.  Nonetheless, if these foriegn viruses enter the US, there exists the potential for their virulence on forage grasses and wheat due to the abundance and wide distribution of the mite vector.  
Time of Attack:
            Adults and eggs are present overwinter and the adult hatch begins in March with the peak adult population peaking in April.  Damage is most evident in April and will continue into May.
            Growers should observe fields in early to mid March and look for the presence of small round eggs in the grooves of the timothy leaf surface. 
Economic Threshold:Lebanon Timothy mite Experiment(Field research and Demonstration)

Treatment is recommended in fields with a previous history of cereal rust mites and/or when 25% of the plant tillers exhibit curled tips of the new leaf blades within several weeks following green-up.  There are no know thresholds developed to date.  Research is underway to develop a monitoring plan and threshold levels for economic justification of treatment.  The following tables provide some economic analysis of the pest.
Video for Scouting.
Scouting Rust mites on Timothy

Wheat Stand Assessment Video

Wheat Stand Assessment Now is the time - Video
Now is the time to assess small grain stands, determine whether an early topdress is required and to assess the status of some early season pests.  This article will detail some points to consider that may help with management decisions.
Spring tiller assessment is the first item to check in the field. Without having to do a miriad of calculations here is a simple method.  To do this you will need a 3 foot measuring stick.  Walk the field in numerous locations and drop the stick on the ground near the base of the plants and count the total number of tillers. Average the sites you check to arrive at an average tillers per three feet.   The goal is to have 70-100 tillers per square foot(25 plants per square foot).  To determine the amount your stand has once you count the total tillers found in the linear 3 foot stick calculate the tiller count per square foot by taking total tillers multiplied by 4 and then divided by the row width in inches. The new number represents tillers per square foot.  For example if you checked 5 areas in a field and the average tiller count you find is 60 tillers then you would take 60 times 4 (240) then divided by the row width(7inch) to arrive at a total of 35 tillers per square foot.  Since the goal is to have 70 -100 tillers and this is far below minimum,  Nitrogen will be needed to stimulate more tillering. 
A second way is to count the plants and use the table to provide guidance.  This guide converts sq foot to different linear feet by varying row spacings.
Row Spacing Table. 
Topdress  Decisions
In marginal fields wheat will respond to nitrogen applied at this time to promote tillering.  In no till 40-60lbs of actual N/acre will be adequate to promote tiller development.  Most of the wheat  grown in our area has a straw market available and with the removal of straw comes the removal of phosphorus and potassium.  Wheat removes 1lb of P205 and 1.8lbs of K20 per bushel of harvest.  That is a large amount of nutrient taken from the soil reserves.  I was in fields last year that double crop soybean crop planted after wheat showed potash defiency  due to low levels in the soil.  My point here is that unless the soil test is above optimum P and K removal  rates should be satisfied through fertilizer or manure sources.
Pest Considerations
This time of year most pests like insects and disease are not active. However, weeds may be of concern depending on the number of weeds and there growth relative to the wheat.   Weeds that encroach, may  hamper tiller formation and compete for nutrients.  As you scout the wheat stands and determine the need to apply a herbicide for control, be sure to check the plants crown location.   If roots are exposed from heaving or from improper planting depth, the herbicide may cause injury to the plants which will limit tiller development.  If this is the case then do not apply any herbicide unless absolutely necessary. 
Table 1.7-3. Small grain seed or plant densities expressed on a basis of square foot, plants per acre, or seeds per foot of row.
Seeds or plants per sq. ftSeeds or plants (millions/acre)Plants or seeds per foot
6 inches7 inches7.5 inches8 inches10 inches

25 March 2014

Manure Application Consideration

Del Voight- Penn State Extensiojn

Manure is a fertilizer and even application is essential to ensuring even crop emergence and even mineralization as the season progresses. A typical manure  analysis varies greatly however it is not uncommon to  have P and K values in that are quite high range so  if you soil test into the heavy strips as illustrated an inaccurate test and management inputs could be severely off.  Here is a video  illustrating how dramatic the manure application can be in one case study.
ARDrone Manure video

19 March 2014

Field Crop News for March 18, 2014

Field Crop News

The latest news from the Penn State Extension Field and Forage Crops Team.
March 18, 2014

In This Issue

1.        Weather Report for March 18, 2014
2.        Frost Seeding of Pastures
3.        Weed Control in Winter Wheat and Barley - Here we Focus on Chickweed and Roughstalk Bluegrass
4.        Roundup Ready 1 Soybeans: Can Seeds Be Saved This Fall?
5.        Tis the Season, Tax Season
6.        Pesticide License Questions, Check out PaPlants

1. Weather Report for March 18, 2014

It has been one of the colder starts to the year with most regions averaging 3 to 5 degrees below normal for the first 10 weeks of 2014, the coldest beginning since 1994.

2. Frost Seeding of Pastures

Now that the snow cover has melted over much of the Commonwealth, we can begin to think of some late winter and early springtime tasks. One of the first on your list should be evaluating the condition of your pastures. If stands are thin, consider frost seeding as an option to thicken your pasture.

ALS resistant chickweed in barley3. Weed Control in Winter Wheat and Barley - Here we Focus on Chickweed and Roughstalk Bluegrass

One of the first field activities of the spring is spraying small grains. This article provides some results on a small grain herbicide trial conducted last year in Lancaster County.

4. Roundup Ready 1 Soybeans: Can Seeds Be Saved This Fall?

It may be possible for growers to be issued a license to replant seed from original Roundup Ready varieties in 2015 if certain conditions are met, but this will be determined by each seed supplier.

5. Tis the Season, Tax Season

There are 28 days remaining to file your individual taxes, April 15th will be here soon.

6. Pesticide License Questions, Check out PaPlants

Do you need a few more pesticide credits before the end of the March and are not sure where to get them or are you not sure if you have enough credit? The PaPlants website can answer those questions.

Questions and Suggestions

If you have any questions or would like to suggest a topic, please contact your local Extension Educator .
Readers can subscribe electronically to this newsletter at the Field Crop News website.
If you have problems subscribing or wish to cancel your subscription, please contact Lisa Crytser by e-mail at lac8@psu.edu or by phone at 814-865-2543.
Information presented above and where trade names are used, are supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by Penn State Extension is implied.
This publication is available in alternative media upon request.

Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences research and extension programs are funded in part by Pennsylvania counties, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
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March 18, 2014
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Real time pest and heat unit activity

100 years of Extension still conducting Soybean Research

Del Voight, via Craig Williams- Penn State Extension
Then 1926 testing Soybean Varieties in Bradford, Pa.

History of Extension

Now PSU Crop Team Checking Trial at the Landisville Experimental Center